An adequate problem-solving process is therefore inevitable. The mainstream approach represented by the international institutions tends to provide radical solutions, such as those pushed forward by the International Monetary Fund to the Greek economic problems: widespread cuts to public finance, austerity programmes in social services and extensive privatisation.
I would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments and suggestions that greatly contributed to improving the final version of the paper. I would also like to thank Jozef Klinga for his proofreading and the editor of the journal for her patience and human approach during the peer-review process.
Systémové alternatívy kapitalizmu. Koncepcie, stratégie, utopia, eds. Zborník príspevkov z vedeckého seminára, Komárno: Ekonomická fakulta Univerzity J. Selyeho v Komárne,pp. Consequences arising from opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging characteristics of the capitalist state show a major inter- nal contradiction.
On one hand, the State must support the process of capital accumulation and protection of property rights and on the other hand support the vision of the State as an impartial arbiter between class interests; in this way it legitimizes its own power.
Such models include the idea of cooperativism, which has been increasingly re emerging as one of the relevant and authentic models.
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The idea of cooperativism has been the subject of extensive interest in both the Slovak and Czech academic area for more than 20 years. It has been examined quite thoroughly in terms of the his- tory of economic thought,9 history,10 law,11 and, last but not least, economics and management.
Therefore, the aim of my paper is to provide a coherent although not comprehensive picture of the cooperative movement from the socio-theoretical perspective, with special opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging paid to the Catholic Social Teaching hereinafter, CSTas well as its comparison with the mainstream approach, represented by the EU and the UN.
In the first part, I depict an elementary charac- teristic of the cooperative movement. Session B Obchodní společnosti a družstva, 6th Ed. Beck, Zborník recenzovaných príspevkov z 2. In comparison to the aforementioned approaches, the CST offers its own thoughts on cooperativism, namely thanks to a doctrine of popes St. An introduction of the ideas of these significant spiritual figures of the 20th and 21st centuries will result in a conclusion on the current role of cooperatives from the CST perspective.
Such an approach represents an original contribution to the theory of cooperativism and could notably enrich the mainstream one. These include the principles of democratic structure and control and the distribution of the net profit for the financial year on an equitable basis. In fact, as reminded by Carl Ratner, cooperativism begins, when individuals start to give up their separateness, privacy, and self-interest and contribute integrate their wealth, possessions, and rewards to a democratically run group in which they collectively decide how the resources will be used to benefit the members together.
Group members develop group projects, identity, feelings, needs, motives, interests, and responsibilities. This group praxis results in social solidarity and support for the members. It also results in an active role for individual members in shaping the activities of the group, and this affects their behaviour. Jak funguje zaměstnanecká participace? Voluntary and Open Membership. Co-operatives are voluntary organisations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of mem- bership, without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination.
Democratic Member Control.
Co-operatives are democratic organisations controlled by their opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging, who actively participate in setting their policies and making deci- sions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the mem- bership. In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights one member, one vote and co-operatives at other levels are also organised in krem na mastnou plet recenze democratic manner.
Member Economic Participation. Members contribute equitably to, and democratical- ly control, the capital of their co-operative.
Sekularizace předchází ekonomickému vzestupu
At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surplus- es for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; and supporting other activities approved by the membership.
Autonomy and Independence. Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organisations controlled by their members.
If they enter into agreements with other organisations, including governments, or opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their co-operative autono- my. Education, Training and Information. Co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can con- tribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives.
They inform the general public — particularly young people and opinion leaders — about the nature and benefits of co-operation. Co-operation among Co-operatives.
Růst křesťanství v Jižní Koreji výrazně podpořil ekonomický růst.
Co-operatives serve their members most effective- ly and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, na- tional, regional and international structures.
Concern for Community. Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members.
Sekularizace předchází ekonomickému vzestupu | Ateisté ČR
People have ceased to be those who produce things; they were no longer owners of their working tools and not directly benefiting from their work. The association became de facto the first agricultural credit cooperative in Europe and the world. The theoretical foundation for the cooperative movement in Bohemia was already laid in the midth century, by a doctor of medicine, politician and civil society activist named František Cyril Kampelík.
Спросила Элли. - Как ты относишься к предложению отца. - А что, мы с Эпониной согласны рискнуть, - усмехнулся Макс. - Иначе я рано или поздно влопаюсь в какую-нибудь серьезную свару с Накамурой.
The credit cooperative movement in Central Europe took off in the mid s and s thanks to the work of German innovators Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen and Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch. One of the main coryphaei of cooperative movement together with theoreticians such as Fer- dinand Lassalle, Louis Blanc and William Thompson is considered to be a Welshman named Robert Owen, a social utopian, who devoted his life to cotton textile production in his own fac- tory.
Unlike other utopian socialists of the 18th century, for instance Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier, Owen regarded private property, exploitation of wage labour, religion and the form of marriage from those times as the causes of all shortcomings of capitalism.
His social philosophy was inspired by an optimistic view of man. He believed that human nature can be enhanced by improving the circumstances in which it lives.
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Owen considered the factory to be the basic cell around which the whole society should be built, while a factory should be managed on a coopera- tive basis. He emphasized the role opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging education, for example that society should not be producing only material goods but manufacturers should also be provided with spiritual education.
His thoughts on cooperativ- ism were put forward opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging a subtle and still little known work On Cooperativism, which he wrote on Januaryand which was published for the first time on 26 and 27 May in the daily Pravda Nos. Thanks to such steps the economy was stabilized, the industry and agriculture were stimulated, and it was no longer the government who directly ordained price levels of goods and services.
The NEP and the related ideas of the cooperative movement were a pragmatic recog- nition of the economic and political reality, although still tactically embedded in the socialist ideological framework. Through the proletarian revolution and the subsequent collectivization of the means of produc- tion, suddenly everything would be expected to go in a different and better way, but this dream finally disappeared, as Benedict XVI commented on the Marxist-Leninist concept in one of his encyclicals.
The cooperatives must be granted state loans that are greater, if only by a little, than the loans we grant to private enterprises, even to heavy industry, etc.
In its Resolu- tion the UN reiterated its longstanding support of cooperative ideas. Thanks to the declaration of the International Year of Cooperatives the UN pursued mainly three goals: to promote the development of cooperatives, to improve the legislative conditions for their existence and action, as well as to raise public awareness about them.
In its Resolution the UN General Assembly directly called upon governments of the member states to pay attention to the recommendations of the UN Secretariat relating to the promotion of growth of cooperative business forms, as well as to create favourable legal and administrative conditions for cooperative economic activities in their countries.
The call was aimed at the area of close cooperation with national governments and international organizations concerned with the development and pro- motion of cooperative entrepreneurship. The UN initiative of continues in the long-term support of cooperative ideas. During the second UN Development Decade — the United Nations attributed crucial importance to the cooperative movement in addressing the problems of the so-called Third Opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging.
One of the strongest and latest impetuses came from the European Parliament EP three years ago. Popes on the Cooperative Movement Heads of the Catholic Church, at least since the second half of the last century, are well aware of the flaws and threats of a capitalist economy, which were also criticized by the aforementioned V. Therefore, they refuse to accept the neoliberal model considered and promoted by the mainstream economy for a long time as optimal.
Jana Pavla II. Despite their initial nearness, both roads finally diverge in the opposite direction. They come, of course, not from socialist ideology like Lenin, but rather from opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging CST.
Some causal remarks on the cooperative movement can be found in the encyclical of St. In the text the Pope appreciates the cooperative type of business and lists a number of recommendations. The cooperatives should always adapt to new situ- ations arising from progress in science and technology and also the changing needs and interests of consumers.
They should be professionally organized as well. These were addressed to various cooperative organizations and associations.
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In fact, each of them referred to the values and ideas presented by Leo XIII in the aforementioned encyclical Rerum novarum. Their ideas are opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging derived from the Second Vatican Council and its conclusions, although the Council expressed its thoughts on cooperativism very modestly. Basically, a marginal remark can be found in one conciliar document, that is the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, issued on 7 December Indeed, insufficiently cultivated estates should be distributed to those who can make these lands fruitful; in opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging case, the necessary things and means, especially educational aids and the right facilities for cooperative organization, must be supplied.
Lenin is remembered by Ratzinger a few decades later: as the Pope mentioned in his encyclical Spe salvi the blind alley of Marx- ism, i. Also jurist A. Trnava: Spolok svätého Vojtecha, Prague: Zvon — České katolické nakladatelství, Constitution Gaudium et Spes, § The Pope noted that facilitating mutual human development and integration through cooperative enterprise reduced individualism and highlighted the diversity of institutions across sectors without jeopardizing their identity.
He recalled that in the wider dimensions [t]he fulcrum of cooperative experiences likes precisely in the commitment to attune the individual and community dimensions. On the ethical level too it is likewise characterized by a marked sensitivity to solidarity, and with respect for the just autonomy of the individual. Benedict XVI reminded his audience, the members of cooperatives, to re- member what characterizes Christian associations.
He also urged them to remain faithful to the Gospel and Catholic teaching. He addressed the representatives of the Confederation of Italian Cooperatives, but his rhetoric was substantially different from that which was typical of his opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging predecessors.
Several levels of his speech can be highlighted. First and foremost, the Pope notices the hopeless situation of many people in contemporary society, not excluding the developed capitalist coun- tries. Come, come to this company. Go home. Furthermore, he asked what to do in a world that operates in this way.
How old are you? Secondly — if there is an atrophy of such a principle — the membership principle is suppressed at the expense of competitiveness.
Firstly, the cooperatives must continue in being the engine leveraging and developing the weakest part of the local communities where they operate, as well as of the entire civil society. A mere sentiment is unable to do this. Cooperatives in general are not established by large opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging, but it is rather often said that they are structurally undercapitalized.
Instead, the Pope tells: you must invest, and you must invest well! They were presented in his address to the staff of the Cooperative Credit Bank of Rome. Solidarity is a demand that arises from the same network of interconnections which develop with globalization.
St John Paul II has contributed to the development of this concept in his message to the 17th General Assembly of Caritas Internationalis of July Indeed, if solidarity is to become worldwide, it must take into account all peoples from all regions of the world. Globalizing solidarity also means working in a close, steady relationship with international organizations, which are guarantors of rights, to create a new balance in the relations between rich and poor countries This opinion, which has never been confirmed by facts, expresses a crude and naïve trust in the goodness of those wielding economic power and in the sacralised workings of the prevailing economic system.
Also the aforementioned Professor Derber pointed out a certain paradox in the case of free market. It is an opportunity to go on weaving, as it were, a network of understanding and solidarity between peoples — without reducing everything to merely commercial or pragmatic exchanges — where there is also room for the human problems of every location In his message the Pope said: I remember — I was a teenager — I was 18 years old: it wasand I heard jak se zbavit únavy nadledvin father speak on Christian cooperativism and from that moment I developed an enthusiasm for it, I saw that it was the way.
It is precisely the road to opoziční přikázání de payer suisse anti aging, not to homogeneity, but to equality in difference. Even economically it goes slowly. I remember that reflec- tion my father gave: it goes forward slowly, but it is sure ….
In his already mentioned five encouragements he hinted at which direction the cooperative movement could take. He also stressed that the reason of cooperatives is quite prophetic, focused on the future.
Workers occupy factories in order to keep their livelihoods. From the CST point of view, cooperativism is typical for its anthro- pocentric character as well as for its communitarian nature.